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Rates and thresholds when you operate your payroll or provide expenses and benefits to your employees.

Unless otherwise stated, the figures quoted apply between 6 April 2017 and 5 April 2018.

PAYE tax and Class 1 National Insurance contributions

You normally operate PAYE as part of your payroll so HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) can collect Income Tax and National Insurance from your employees.

Your payroll software will calculate how much tax and National Insurance to deduct from your employees’ pay.

Tax thresholds, rates and codes

The amount of Income Tax you deduct from your employees depends on their tax code and how much of their taxable income is above their Personal Allowance.

PAYE tax rates, thresholds and codes 2017 to 2018
Employee personal allowance £221 per week
£958 per month
£11,500 per year
UK Basic tax rate 20% on annual earnings above the PAYE tax threshold and up to £33,500
UK Higher tax rate 40% on annual earnings from £33,501 to £150,000
UK Additional tax rate 45% on annual earnings above £150,000
Scottish Basic tax rate 20% on annual earnings above the PAYE tax threshold and up to £31,500
Scottish Higher tax rate 40% on annual earnings from £31,501 to £150,000
Scottish Additional tax rate 45% on annual earnings above £150,000
Emergency tax codes 1150L W1, 1150L M1 or 1150L X

Class 1 National Insurance thresholds

You can only make National Insurance deductions on earnings above the Lower Earnings Limit (LEL).

Class 1 National Insurance thresholds 2017 to 2018
Lower Earnings Limit (LEL) £113 per week
£490 per month
£5,876 per year
Primary Threshold (PT) £157 per week
£680 per month
£8,164 per year
Secondary Threshold (ST) £157 per week
£680 per month
£8,164 per year
Upper Secondary Threshold (under 21) (UST) £866 per week
£3,750 per month
£45,000 per year
Apprentice Upper Secondary Threshold (apprentice under 25) (AUST) £866 per week
£3,750 per month
£45,000 per year
Upper Earnings Limit (UEL) £866 per week
£3,750 per month
£45,000 per year

Class 1 National Insurance rates

Employee (primary) contribution rates

Deduct primary contributions (employee’s National Insurance) from your employees’ pay through PAYE.

National Insurance category letter Earnings at or above LEL up to and including PT Earnings above the PT up to and including UEL Balance of earnings above UEL
A 0% 12% 2%
B 0% 5.85% 2%
C NIL NIL NIL
H (Apprentice under 25) 0% 12% 2%
J 0% 2% 2%
M (under 21) 0% 12% 2%
Z (under 21 – deferment) 0% 2% 2%

Employer (secondary) contribution rates

You pay secondary contributions (employer’s National Insurance) to HMRCas part of your PAYE bill.

Pay employers’ PAYE tax and National Insurance.

National Insurance category letter Earnings at or above LELup to and including ST Earnings above ST up to and including UEL/UST/AUST Balance of earnings above UEL/UST/AUST
A 0% 13.80% 13.80%
B 0% 13.80% 13.80 %
C 0% 13.80% 13.80%
H (Apprentice under 25) 0% 0% 13.80%
J 0% 13.80% 13.80%
M (under 21) 0% 0% 13.80%
Z (under 21 – deferment) 0% 0% 13.80%

Class 1A National Insurance: expenses and benefits

You must pay Class 1A National Insurance on work benefits you give to your employees, example a company mobile phone. You report and pay Class 1A at the end of each tax year.

NI class 2017 to 2018 rate
Class 1A 13.8%

Pay employers’ Class 1A National Insurance.

Class 1B National Insurance: PAYE Settlement Agreements (PSAs)

You pay Class 1B National Insurance if you have a PSA. This allows you to make one annual payment to cover all the tax and National Insurance due on small or irregular taxable expenses or benefits for your employees.

National Insurance class 2017 to 2018 rate
Class 1B 13.8%

Pay Class 1B National Insurance.

National Minimum Wage

The National Minimum Wage is the minimum pay per hour almost all workersare entitled to by law. Use the National Minimum Wage calculator to check if you’re paying a worker the National Minimum Wage or if you owe them payments from past years.

The rates below apply from 1 April 2017.

Category of worker Hourly rate
Aged 25 and above (national living wage rate) £7.50
Aged 21 to 24 inclusive £7.05
Aged 18 to 20 inclusive £5.60
Aged under 18 (but above compulsory school leaving age) £4.05
Apprentices aged under 19 £3.50
Apprentices aged 19 and over, but in the first year of their apprenticeship £3.50

See National Minimum Wage rates for previous years.

Statutory maternity, paternity, adoption and shared parental pay

Use the maternity and paternity calculator for employers to calculate your employee’s Statutory maternity pay (SMP), paternity or adoption pay, their qualifying week, average weekly earnings and leave period.

Type of payment or recovery 2017 to 2018 rate
SMP – weekly rate for first six weeks 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings
SMP – weekly rate for remaining weeks £140.98 or 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings, whichever is lower
Statutory paternity pay (SPP) – weekly rate £140.98 or 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings, whichever is lower
Statutory adoption pay (SAP) – weekly rate for first six weeks 90% of employee’s average weekly earnings
SAP – weekly rate for remaining weeks £140.98 or 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings, whichever is lower
Statutory shared parental pay (ShPP)– weekly rate £140.98 or 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings, whichever is lower
SMP/SPP/ShPP/SAP – proportion of your payments you can recover from HMRC 92% if your total Class 1 National Insurance (both employee and employer contributions) is above £45,000 for the previous tax year

103% if your total Class 1 National Insurance for the previous tax year is £45,000 or lower

Statutory Sick Pay (SSP)

The same weekly SSP rate applies to all employees. However, the amount you must actually pay an employee for each day they’re off work due to illness (the daily rate) depends on the number of ‘qualifying days’ (QDs) they work each week.

Use the SSP calculator to work out your employee’s sick pay, or use the rates below.

Unrounded daily rates Number of QDs in week 1 day to pay 2 days to pay 3 days to pay 4 days to pay 5 days to pay 6 days to pay 7 days to pay
£12.7642 7 £12.77 £25.53 £38.30 £51.06 £63.83 £76.59 £89.35
£14.8916 6 £14.90 £29.79 £44.68 £59.57 £74.46 £89.35
£17.8700 5 £17.87 £35.74 £53.61 £71.48 £89.35
£22.3375 4 £22.34 £44.68 £67.02 £89.35
£29.7833 3 £29.79 £59.57 £89.35
£44.6750 2 £44.68 £89.35
£89.3500 1 £89.35

Student loan recovery

If your employees’ earnings are above the earnings threshold, record their student loan deductions in your payroll software. It will automatically calculate and deduct repayments from their pay.

Rate or threshold 2017 to 2018 rate
Employee earnings threshold for Plan 1 £17,775 per year
£1,481 per month
£341 per week
Employee earnings threshold for Plan 2 £21,000 per year
£1,750 per month
£403 per week
Student loan deductions 9%

Company cars: Advisory Fuel Rates (AFRs)

Use AFRs to work out mileage costs if you provide company cars to your employees.

The rates below apply from 1 December 2017.

Engine size Petrol – amount per mile LPG – amount per mile
1400cc or less 11 pence 7 pence
1401cc to 2000cc 14 pence 9 pence
Over 2000cc 21 pence 14 pence
Engine size Diesel – amount per mile
1600cc or less 9 pence
1601cc to 2000cc 11 pence
Over 2000cc 13 pence

Hybrid cars are treated as either petrol or diesel cars for this purpose.

Employee vehicles: Mileage Allowance Payments (MAPs)

MAPs are what you pay your employees for using their own vehicle for business journeys.

You can pay your employees an approved amount of MAPs each year without having to report them to HMRC. To work out the approved amount, multiply your employee’s business travel miles for the year by the rate per mile for their vehicle.

Find out more about reporting and paying MAPs.

Type of vehicle Rate per business mile 2017 to 2018
Car For tax purposes: 45 pence for the first 10,000 business miles in a tax year, then 25 pence for each subsequent mile

For National Insurance purposes: 45 pence for all business miles

Motorcycle 24 pence for both tax and National Insurance purposes and for all business miles
Cycle 20 pence for both tax and National Insurance purposes and for all business miles
AdminRates and thresholds when you operate your payroll or provide expenses and benefits to your employees.
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Autumn Budget 2017: 25 things you need to know

The Chancellor has presented his Budget to Parliament – here’s a summary of what was announced.

1. There are over 32 million people in work – near a record high
The rise in employment over the past year has been driven by full time workers. Unemployment is also at its lowest rate since 1975.

In 2017 growth has remained solid, but slowed slightly at the start of the year. The UK economy is forecast to grow by 1.5% in 2017. It will then grow at a slightly slower rate in the next three years, before picking up in 2021 and 2022.

Inflation is forecast to peak at 3% in the final months of this year, as measured by the Consumer Prices Index (CPI). It will then fall towards the target of 2% over the next year.

2. Borrowing has fallen by three quarters since 2010, but debt is still high
In 2009-10 the UK borrowed £1 in every £4 that was spent. Last year it was £1 in every £16.

The fall in borrowing means we are adding less to our debt every year. However the UK still has a debt of over £1.7 trillion – around £65,000 for every household in the country.

3. An extra £3 billion to prepare for Brexit over the next two years
The money will make sure the government is ready on day 1 of exit. It will include funding to prepare the border, the future immigration system and new trade relationships.

4. £6.3 billion of new funding for the NHS
£3.5 billion will be invested in upgrading NHS buildings and improving care.

£2.8 billion will go towards improving A&E performance, reducing waiting times for patients, and treating more people this winter.

5. Abolishing stamp duty land tax (SDLT) on homes under £300,000 for first-time buyers from 22 November
95% of first-time buyers who pay stamp duty will benefit.

First-time buyers of homes worth between £300,000 and £500,000 will not pay stamp duty on the first £300,000. They will pay the normal rates of stamp duty on the price above that. This will save £1,660‎ on the average first-time buyer property.

80% of people buying their first home will pay no stamp duty.

There will be no relief for those buying properties over £500,000.

6. 300,000 new homes a year, an amount not achieved since 1970
£15.3 billion new financial support for house building over the next five years – taking the total to at least £44 billion. This includes £1.2 billion for the government to buy land to build more homes, and £2.7 billion for infrastructure that will support housing.

The government will also create 5 new ‘garden’ towns.

Changes to the planning system will encourage better use of land in cities and towns. This means more homes can be built while protecting the green belt.

7. The National Living Wage and the National Minimum Wage will increase from April 2018
The National Living Wage for those aged 25 and over will increase from £7.50 per hour to £7.83 per hour from April 2018. Over 2 million people are expected to benefit. For a full-time worker, it represents a pay rise of over £600 a year.

The National Minimum Wage will also increase:

21 to 24 year olds 18 to 20 year olds 16 and 17 year olds Apprentices
£7.38 per hour £5.90 per hour £4.20 per hour £3.70 per hour
8. The tax-free personal allowance will rise with inflation to £11,850 from April 2018
The personal allowance – the amount you earn before you start paying income tax – will rise from £11,500 to £11,850. This means that in 2018-19, a typical taxpayer will pay £1,075 less income tax than in 2010-11.

9. Fuel duty will remain frozen for an eighth year
In 2018, fuel duty will remain frozen for the eighth year in a row, saving drivers £160 a year on average.

10. A new railcard for those aged 26 to 30
The government will work with the rail industry on a new railcard which will be introduced from spring 2018.

11. Duty on beer, wine, cider and spirits will be frozen
The cost of a pint of beer or cider will be 1p lower than if duty had risen by inflation. The cost of a typical bottle of wine will be 6p cheaper.

Cheap, high-strength cider will be subject to a new band of duty.

12. Duty on tobacco will rise
The duty on cigarettes will increase by 2% above inflation. Hand-rolling tobacco duty will increase by 3% above inflation.

13. 95% of passengers will not see an increase in their Air Passenger Duty
Air Passenger Duty will be frozen for all economy passengers and all short-haul flights. It will rise for premium fares on long-haul flights, and on private jets.

14. Households applying for Universal Credit will get more upfront support
Households in need who qualify for Universal Credit will be able to access a month’s worth of support within five days, via an interest-free advance, from January 2018. This can be repaid over 12 months.

Claimants will be eligible for Universal Credit from the day they apply, rather than after seven days. Housing Benefit will continue to be paid for two weeks after a Universal Credit claim.

Low-income households in areas where private rents have been rising fastest will receive an extra £280 on average in Housing Benefit or Universal Credit.

15. Electric and driverless cars
The UK will set out rules so that self-driving cars can be tested without a safety operator.

An extra £100 million will go towards helping people buy battery electric cars. The government will also make sure all new homes are built with the right cables for electric car charge points.

16. The world’s first national advisory body for artificial intelligence (AI)
The Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation will set standards for the use and ethics of AI and data. This will allow the UK to lead the world in developing practical uses for the technology.

17. More investment in maths and science in schools
Schools will get £600 for every extra pupil who takes A level or Core maths.

£27 million will help improve how maths is taught in 3,000 schools. £49 million will go towards helping students resitting GCSE maths.

£350,000 of extra funding a year will be given to every specialist maths school that is set up across the country. The number of fully-qualified computer science teachers will also rise from 4,000 to 12,000.

18. £64 million for construction and digital training courses
£34 million will go towards teaching construction skills like bricklaying and plastering. £30 million will go towards digital courses using AI.

This funding is provided in advance of launching a National Retraining Scheme that will help people get new skills. It will be overseen by the government, the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and the Confederation of British Industry (CBI). They will decide on other areas of the economy where new skills and training courses are needed.

19. A £220 million Clean Air Fund for local areas with the highest air pollution
Local authorities will be able to use this money to help people adapt as steps are taken to reduce air pollution. Possible ways the money could be spent include reducing the cost of public transport for those on low incomes or modernising buses with more energy efficient technology.

The money will come from a temporary rise in Company Car Tax and Vehicle Excise Duty on new diesel cars.

20. Reducing single-use plastics waste
The government will seek views on reducing single-use plastics waste through the tax system and charges. Disposable plastics like coffee cups, toothpaste tubes and polystyrene takeaway boxes damage our environment.

This follows the success of the 5p carrier bag charge, which has reduced the use of plastic bags by 80% in the last two years.

21. Business rates will switch to being increased by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) 2 years earlier than planned
Business Rates will rise by CPI from April 2018. Business rates currently rise by the Retail Price Index (RPI), a different way of measuring inflation which tends to be higher than the CPI.

Business rates revaluations will take place every 3 years, rather than every 5 years, starting after the next revaluation, currently due in 2022.

22. Pubs in England will continue to receive a £1,000 business rates discount next year
The discount applies to pubs with a rateable value of up to £100,000.

23. Stopping digital multinationals who hold intellectual property in low-tax countries from avoiding tax
The government will also look to change international corporate tax rules to ensure digital companies pay a fair amount of tax.

24. More money for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
The devolved administrations will all get increased spending power in devolved areas, including education, health and transport. Each devolved administration can decide where this will be spent:

There will be an increase of £2 billion for the Scottish Government
There will be an increase of £1.2 billion for the Welsh Government
There will be an increase of £660 million for a Northern Ireland Executive
Police Scotland and the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service will be able to claim VAT refunds which will save them around £40 million per year.

25. Funding for transport across England
£1.7 billion will go towards improving transport in English cities. Half will be given to Combined Authorities with Mayors, and the rest allocated by a competition.

An extra £337 million will go towards a fleet of new trains on the Tyne & Wear Metro.

An extra £6 million will go towards the Midlands Connect motorway and rail projects.

Transport links along the Cambridge-Milton Keynes-Oxford corridor will be improved by:

completing the rail link between Oxford and Bedford, and Aylesbury and Milton Keynes
setting up a new East West Rail Company to speed up work on the rail link between Bedford and Cambridge
£5 million to help develop plans for Cambridge South Station
building the Expressway road between Oxford and Cambridge

Full copy of the Budget can be downloaded here:

AdminAutumn Budget 2017: 25 things you need to know
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Bank of England Monetary Policy Summary, November 2017

The Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) sets monetary policy to meet the 2% inflation target, and in a way that helps to sustain growth and employment. At its meeting ending on 1 November 2017, the MPC voted by a majority of 7-2 to increase Bank Rate by 0.25 percentage points, to 0.5%. The Committee voted unanimously to maintain the stock of sterling non-financial investment-grade corporate bond purchases, financed by the issuance of central bank reserves, at £10 billion. The Committee also voted unanimously to maintain the stock of UK government bond purchases, financed by the issuance of central bank reserves, at £435 billion.

The MPC’s outlook for inflation and activity in the November Inflation Report is broadly similar to its projections in August. In the MPC’s central forecast, conditioned on the gently rising path of Bank Rate implied by current market yields, GDP grows modestly over the next few years at a pace just above its reduced rate of potential. Consumption growth remains sluggish in the near term before rising, in line with household incomes. Net trade is bolstered by the strong global expansion and the past depreciation of sterling. Business investment is being affected by uncertainties around Brexit, but it continues to grow at a moderate pace, supported by strong global demand, high rates of profitability, the low cost of capital and limited spare capacity.

CPI inflation rose to 3.0% in September. The MPC still expects inflation to peak above 3.0% in October, as the past depreciation of sterling and recent increases in energy prices continue to pass through to consumer prices. The effects of rising import prices on inflation diminish over the next few years, and domestic inflationary pressures gradually pick up as spare capacity is absorbed and wage growth recovers. On balance, inflation is expected to fall back over the next year and, conditioned on the gently rising path of Bank Rate implied by current market yields, to approach the 2% target by the end of the forecast period.

As in previous Reports, the MPC’s projections are conditioned on the average of a range of possible outcomes for the United Kingdom’s eventual trading relationship with the European Union. The projections also assume that, in the interim, households and companies base their decisions on the expectation of a smooth adjustment to that new trading relationship.

The decision to leave the European Union is having a noticeable impact on the economic outlook. The overshoot of inflation throughout the forecast predominantly reflects the effects on import prices of the referendum-related fall in sterling. Uncertainties associated with Brexit are weighing on domestic activity, which has slowed even as global growth has risen significantly. And Brexit-related constraints on investment and labour supply appear to be reinforcing the marked slowdown that has been increasingly evident in recent years in the rate at which the economy can grow without generating inflationary pressures.

Monetary policy cannot prevent either the necessary real adjustment as the United Kingdom moves towards its new international trading arrangements or the weaker real income growth that is likely to accompany that adjustment over the next few years. It can, however, support the economy during the adjustment process. The MPC’s remit specifies that, in such exceptional circumstances, the Committee must balance any trade-off between the speed at which it intends to return inflation sustainably to the target and the support that monetary policy provides to jobs and activity.

The steady erosion of slack has reduced the degree to which it is appropriate for the MPC to accommodate an extended period of inflation above the target. Unemployment has fallen to a 42-year low and the MPC judges that the level of remaining slack is limited. The global economy is growing strongly, domestic financial conditions are highly accommodative and consumer confidence has remained resilient. In line with the framework set out at the time of the referendum, the MPC now judges it appropriate to tighten modestly the stance of monetary policy in order to return inflation sustainably to the target. Accordingly, the Committee voted by 7-2 to raise Bank Rate by 0.25 percentage points, to 0.5%. Monetary policy continues to provide significant support to jobs and activity in the current exceptional circumstances. All members agree that any future increases in Bank Rate would be expected to be at a gradual pace and to a limited extent.

There remain considerable risks to the outlook, which include the response of households, businesses and financial markets to developments related to the process of EU withdrawal. The MPC will respond to developments as they occur insofar as they affect the behaviour of households and businesses, and the outlook for inflation. The Committee will monitor closely the incoming evidence on these and other developments, including the impact of today’s increase in Bank Rate, and stands ready to respond to changes in the economic outlook as they unfold to ensure a sustainable return of inflation to the 2% target.

The full report can be found here: http://www.inflationreport.co.uk/

AdminBank of England Monetary Policy Summary, November 2017
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